July 25, 2013

Avoid Fluoride removale using Activated Alumina or "Bone Char"

Bone Char 

Like Activated Alumina cartridges Bone Char has also been widely promoted by smaller water filter resellers as being effective for fluoride removal.

What is Bone Char?

Like the name implies, Bone Char is actually the remains of animal bones that have been crushed, exposed to high furnace temperatures and carbonised.

Bone charcoal contains a carbon structure while supporting a porous hydroxyapatite matrix (a calcium phosphate hydroxide in crystalline form which is rich in surface ions that can be readily replaced by fluoride ions). Adsorption and ion exchange are the mechanism for fluoride reduction.

Is it effective?

The effectiveness of Bone Char is similar that of Activated Alumina. It requires a  low pH (again, below 6.5 is recommended), low flow rates and frequent replacement of cartridges.

While new Bone Char cartridges are claimed to reduce fluoride by up to 90%, in controlled laboratory tests we found that after only 50 litres (10 gallons) fluoride removal dropped from 80% to 50%. And, after just 100 litres fluoride removal was only 25%.

This means in order to remove fluoride at anywhere near an effective rate a Bone Char cartridge would need to be replaced at least every week. This is neither practical or cost effective.

Industry Notice

In published advice from the independent Water Quality Association examining Bone Char and  Activated Alumina they made the following comment:

"Because of the diverse influent water chemistries and product designs, water analysis tests to confirm effective treatment by any of the POE (Point of Entry/Whole Home) units for fluoride removal is recommended. Only POU (Point of Use) units tested and certified for fluoride reduction are recommended to be used for such purposes."

WQA - Technical Advice Bulletin

In other words, as early as 2004 WQA recognised that fluoride removal claims made for Bone Char require confirmation by scientific testing and certification. We also note that as of 2012 there were no Bone Char filter cartridges registered or certified with either WQA or NSF.

Whole Home Fluoride Removal

In order to be effective at removing fluoride from the entire home water supply Bone Char media requires a pH below 6.5 (the lower the better) and a contact time of around 20 minutes. This would require the installation of a filtraton system, allowing for a flow rate of at least 20 litres per minute (most whole of home systems offer 60 litres per miniute), of approximately 200 liters worth of Bone Char media.  With associated equipment the installation footprint would be the size of a small car.

Again, like the claims made for Activated Aluminawhole of home fluoride removal claims using Bone Char are equally misleading. 


Bone Char is ideal for fluoride removal in third world situations where fluoride presents a serious health risk at greater than 5ppm. In these situations contact time can be well in excess of 60 minutes and the volume of media used is not limited by cartridge size.

In domestic Point of Use filter systems for drinking water Bone Char achieves less than 50% removal rates, often far less, and requires cartridge replacement every 100 litres. Bone Char is simply not a suitable technology for fluoride removal for use on municipal water sources.

Systems such as The  Fluoridemaster  uses ''Fluorisorb" which  they say is Hydroxyapatite which ended up being bone char!

July 18, 2013

The Site has launched

Hi all and many thanks for the great support and comments on the launch of Wholesale Filters. We are currently working hard to get all our products up for you to browse and buy direct. We have high quality water filters and water filter products that have been tried and tested for over 20years. We are an Aquapro dealer and distribute Erie and Pentek filtration products. We will be soon launching our Erie head service center, with a fast turn around so people in New Zealand who cant find someone local to fix the heads we will be offering this service as well.

Stay tuned for more updates on new water filter products to be added. And dont forget if you cant find anything please feel free to email us.




June 25, 2013

Ask the Water Filter experts

HI New Zealand

Im Dave the filter guy now you can buy water filters direct from this website To either install yourself or have me come out and install.We will only stock high quality products to insure you the very best in drinking water quality and at great prices direct to the public. Feel free to post on our blog here if you have any questions on your water problem as we have a team of water experts that know how to treat water. For interesting good reading  post your question up on our blog for us to answer, so others to see how to solve their water issues.

Also as this is a new Water filter website we will be tweeking and updating to make finding your filter product easier.